The article addresses the relation of referential expressions and co-occurring kinetic phenomena (hand and head gestures) on the material of the RUPEX multimodal corpus. The results reflect significant differences in how individual movements and gestures are aligned with two major types of reference (full NPs vs. reduced expressions). It was initially assumed that full NPs are more often accompanied by a gesture. Our data support this hypothesis not only through the material of hand gestures, but also through head movements. Moreover, full NPs are more likely to be accompanied by downward movements in both manual and cephalic channels, as well as by metadiscourse gestures, in comparison to reduced referential units (personal and demonstrative pronouns). In addition, pronouns are more likely to be aligned with pointing hand gestures and zero reference is often accompanied by descriptive hand gestures. However, the kinetic behavior of the interlocutors is determined by a variety of factors, including the topic of the conversation, which predisposes to certain types of gestures and the relative position of the interlocutors.
In the present article, we offer a detailed reply to alternative interpretations of our explanation of two eleventh-century phrases inscribed many times on the walls of the St. Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod: коуни рони and парехъ мари. According to our previous article in this journal, the phrases have a Semitic origin: Hebrew qūmī ronnī and Syriac /barren̲k mār/, respectively. In both instances new empirical evidence is provided by S. Ju. Temčin. In the case of коуни рони we argue that his alternative hypothesis cannot be maintained for a number of compelling reasons; our interpretation stands as it is. In the case of парехъ мари we basically agree with Temčin and provide evidence that sheds further light on its path of transmission into Slavic.
The article discusses the impact of the artistic life of Moscow in the mid-14th— early 15th centuries on the condition and fate of the monuments of pre-Mongol time on the lands of the Grand Duchy of Vladimir. Assumption Cathedral of Vladimir upon Klyazma constantly remained in the focus of the political life of Grand Duke Ivan Kalita and his descendants. The domes of the Cathedral being regilded by Moscow mastes, the frescoes and the iconostasis being made by Moscow painters and the temple treasury being preserved and increased by the Moscow princes demonstrate the special place of Vladimir upon Klyazma as the second “mother of cities” in Russia after Kiev.
Novgorod birchbark letter no 1021 (the second half of the twelfth century) is a record of a purchase by two partners of a large batch of squirrel pelts, indicating the amount of money paid for the fur. Comparison of these data with the testimonies of other recently discovered birchbark documents made it possible to reconstruct the system of relations linking the three main types of means of payment that were in use in Rus’ in the pre-Mongol period: silver, fur and leather «banknotes». Based on these ratios, among which the central one is the equivalence of silver grivna to «semnitsa» (seven times forty) squirrel pelts, the article proposes a detailed reconstruction of the financial operation reflected by the document.
This article presents a diachronic study of third-person pronouns' expansion in the Soikkola dialect of the Ingrian language (Uralic family, Finnic group). A preliminary analysis of the data revealed that all personal subject pronouns are by default explicitly expressed. This pattern is unusual for other Uralic languages, where pronouns are mostly omitted either in all three grammatical persons, or in first- and second person, in contrast to the third one. To clarify the genesis and reconstruct the potential expansion of subject pronouns, modern Indrian transcripts were compared with the earliest Ingrian text (19th century tale), on the one hand, and with the mid-twentieth century narratives (the data of P. Ariste), on the other hand. The analysis showed that in Ingrian of the 19th century in praeterite clauses third-person pronouns were mostly omitted, while first- and second person pronouns were usually explicitly expressed. The records of the mid-XX century reflected a similar asymmetry of the 1st / 2nd vs. of the 3rd person not only in praeterite, but also in present clauses. Thus, it was reaffirmed that during the 2nd half of the XX century, a massive expansion of third-person subject pronouns took place in Ingrian . The reasons for this phenomenon, apparently, are due to Russian infuence in the course of intensively increased contacts after the 1930s, and can be interpreted as a borrowing a of a subject syntactic pattern.
The paper focuses on the colophons and marginalia of the Arkhangelsk Gospel of 1092. The following three scribal notes of Michkо are considered: a cryptogram of five letters inscribed in the cross, a note about a П-shaped headpiece and a lengthy penitential colophon, the beginning of which is damaged. A full reading of the dated colophon of presbyter Peter, who used non-standard abbreviations in it, is given. The first publication of a marginalium about “verblenye” crosses is offered. The note of Zavid on the last page of the manuscript is analyzed.
The paper presents a comparative overview of two categories of Old Rus' writing: birchbark documents and graffiti inscriptions on church walls. Similarities and differences between them are illustrated on the examples of two sets of birchbark documents discoverd at Troitskii excavation site in Velikii Novgorod and two sets of graffiti insriptions - in St Sophia Cathedral and St Geogge Cfthedral in the Yuriev Monastery.
This article deals with an application of referential markup to a large multimodal resource “Russian Pear Chats and Stories”, annotated for vocal, oculomotor, manual and cephalic channels. Despite a large number of works on referential choice, it has never been investigated within the framework of multimodal communication. For this purpose, a special annotation scheme in the ELAN environment is proposed, allowing one to annotate different types of referential units and to conduct a simultaneous tracking of referential expressions (full NPs, pronouns, demonstratives, zeroes, etc) with accompanying verbal and non-verbal units. The analysis of three recordings (overall duration equals to 141 minute), where the new referential annotation was introduced in addition to the existing multimodal markup, reveals a range of understudied peculiarities of the referential choice. It was found that the role of the Commentator in the conversation entails a significantly larger amount of constructions with a zero subject pronoun, compared to the monologue discourse of the Narrator and the Reteller. The analysis of referential expressions and accompanying pointing gestures complied with more general data previously obtained on the English material and showed that nouns are significantly more often accompanied by a pointing stroke than personal pronouns, while demonstratives occupy an intermediate position between nouns and personal pronouns as units potentially accompanied by a gesture.
A comparative diachronic analysis of the double-marking referential pattern in minor Finnic languages has revealed its contact-induced origin.
The article is a preliminary publication of the birchbark letters found in Veliky Novgorod and Staraya Russa during the archaeological season of 2018.
The article demonstrates that the initial words of the German ambassadors’ speech to Vladimir Svyatoslavich in the 6494 entry of the Povest’ vremennykh let represent a diplomatic formula also reflected by the 6733 (1225) entry of the First Novgorod Chronicle. The formula in question declares freedom of ambassadors’ and merchants’ traveling through the lands of contracting states. Accordingly, the ambassadors’ words contain a proposal to Vladimir to supplement the mutual openness for economic and political contacts already existing between the two countries by their confessional community.